Dow Jones Industrial Average Futures
Dow futures are listed and traded on the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) division of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange Group. The CBOT’s futures version of the Dow index closely follows the infamous Dow Jones Industrial Average comprised of 30 blue chip stocks.
In the past, the futures exchange provided futures traders with the ability to speculate on the DJIA in three different increments of risk and reward. However, in recent years the product listing has been streamlined a single Dow futures contract to increase efficiency; the mini-sized Dow (futures symbol YM). The DJIA mini-sized futures contract is often referred to in the industry as the “nickel Dow” because each point of movement in the futures market is worth $5 to a trader.
Unlike some of the true commodity futures contracts, the contract size of a stock index is not fixed. In fact, there is no contract size; instead, the contract value fluctuates with the market and is calculated by multiplying the index value by the point value (which is $5 in the case of the mini Dow futures contract). Accordingly, if the mini-sized Dow futures contract settled the trading day at 17,520 the value of the contract at that particular moment would be $86,250 ($5 x 17,520). Keep in mind that the margin for the mini-sized Dow is far less than $57,600 making it a highly leveraged trading vehicle. Margins are subject to change at any time, but the average seems to be between $4,000 and $5,000. As you can imagine, being responsible for the gains and losses of a contract valued at nearly $90,000 with as little as $4,000 could create large amounts of volatility in your commodity trading account. However, it is this leverage that keeps traders coming back to the futures markets for more. Unfortunately, it is the same leverage that has resulted in many bitter ex-futures traders.
Calculating profit and loss in the mini-sized Dow is relatively easy. Unlike many other commodities, or even financial futures, the Dow doesn’t trade in fractions or decimals; one tick is simply one point. Consequently, if a trader is long a mini-Dow futures contract from 17,257 and is able to liquidate the trade the next day at 17,348, the realized profit would have been 91 points or $455 (91 x $5). This is figured by subtracting the purchase price from the sale price and multiplying the point difference by $5.
17,348 – 17,257 = 91
91 x $5 = $455 (minus commissions and fees)
Not bad for a day’s work; regrettably, it isn’t always that easy. Had the commodity trader taken the exact opposite position by selling the contract at 17,257 and buying it back at 17,348 the loss would have been $455 plus commissions and fees.